Sharp Serif Text PanEuro

Sharp Serif is an ode to the classical models of the 15th-century Italian masters and French renaissance types, alchemically reconfigured for the present day. The second textface by Lucas Sharp, Sharp Serif combines the novel ideation of its creator with the ineffable qualities of these classical forms into a contemporary serif text face that is both beautiful and eminently accessible.
Type Director: Lucas Sharp. Design: Connor Davenport, My-Lan Thuong, Léna Le Pommelet. Engineer: Calvin Kwok. Kerning: Igino Marini, Lucas Sharp
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V.1 May 2024
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Fictional Metal Type
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Brick stamps were used by the Akkadian Empire (2334–2154 BCE) in Mesopotamia in order to dedicate the bricks used in temples, by inscribing the name of the ruler. A typical brick stamp of the ruler Naram-Sin for example would read: Naram-sin builder, the temple of Goddess Inanna. Not all the bricks of a temple would be imprinted in this way, but only several of them, enough to make clear who built the temple and for which god. The reason for using stamps was to replace the slow and cumbersome process of inscribing the bricks by hand

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In China, seals have been used since at least the Shang dynasty (2nd millennium BCE). In the Western Zhou, sets of seal stamps were encased in blocks of type and used on clay moulds for casting bronzes. By the end of the 3rd century BCE, seals were also used for printing on pottery. In the Northern dynasties textual sources contain references to wooden seals with up to 120 characters. The seals had a religious element to them. Daoists used seals as healing devices by impressing therapeutic characters onto the flesh of sick people. They were also used to stamp food, creating a talismanic character to ward off disease. The first evidence of these practices appeared under a Buddhist context in the mid 5th century CE. Centuries later, seals were used to create hundreds of Buddha images.

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Ο Σαργών (2371-2330 π.Χ) ιδρυτής της Ακκαδικής δυναστείας, αφού υποτάσσει το βασιλέα της Ουρούκ, επεκτείνει την κυριαρχία του σε ολόκληρη την Κάτω Μεσοποταμία μέχρι το Ντιλμούν και το Ελάμ, επιβάλλοντας τη γλώσσα τους και δημιουργώντας το σουμερο-ακκαδικό πολιτισμό. Ο ρόλος του θεωρείται καθοριστικός λόγω της διοικητικής οργάνωσης που επέβαλε. Έθεσε επικεφαλής των πόλεων διοικητές που ορίζονταν από το κέντρο. Αντικατέστησε τη γλώσσα των Σουμερίων με μία σημιτική (ακκαδική), από το όνομα της νέας πρωτεύουσας Ακκάδ, με σφηνοειδή γραφή. Ο εγγονός του, Ναράμ Σιν, εδραιώνει την ισχύ της αυτοκρατορίας και την αυξάνει σε μέγεθος. Ονομάζεται «βασιλέας των τεσσάρων περιοχών του κόσμου», γιατί η αυτοκρατορία του εκτείνεται από τη Μεσόγειο και την Παλαιστίνη μέχρι τον Περσικό Κόλπο και το σημερινό Ιράν. Επί της βασιλείας του Ναράμ-Σιν υπάρχει και μία ιδεολογική αλλαγή, η θεοποίηση του εν ζωή βασιλιά. Το εμπόριο είχε ανθίσει, καθώς πολλά αγαθά μετακινούνταν από όλες τις περιοχές όπως ασήμι από την Ανατολία, λάπις λάζουλι από το Αφγανιστάν, κέδροι από τον Λίβανο και χαλκός από το Ομάν. Οι πόλεις-κράτη της Μεσοποταμίας πλούτιζαν και φρούρια χτίζονταν στα πιο αδύναμα σημεία.

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According to the Book of the Southern Qi, in the 480s, a man named Gong Xuanyi styled himself Gong the Sage and "said that a supernatural being had given him a jade seal jade block writing, which did not require a brush: one blew on the paper and characters formed." He then used his powers to mystify a local governor. Eventually he was dealt with by the governor's successor, who presumably executed Gong. Timothy Hugh Barrett postulates that Gong's magical jade block was actually a printing device, and Gong was one of the first, if not the first printer. The semi-mythical record of him therefore describes his usage of the printing process to deliberately bewilder onlookers and create an image of mysticism around himself. However woodblock print flower patterns applied to silk in three colours have been found dated from the Han dynasty (before AD 220). Inscribed seals made of metal or stone, especially jade, and inscribed stone tablets probably provided inspiration for the invention of printing. Copies of classical texts on tablets were erected in a public place in Luoyang during the Han dynasty for scholars and students to copy. The Suishu jingjizhi, the blibography of the official history of the Sui dynasty, includes several ink-squeeze rubbings, believed to have led to the early duplication of texts that inspired printing. A stone inscription cut in reverse dating from the first half of the 6th century implies that it may have been a large printing block. The rise of printing was greatly influenced by Mahayana Buddhism. According to Mahayana beliefs, religious texts hold intrinsic value for carrying the Buddha's word and act as talismanic objects containing sacred power capable of warding off evil spirits. By copying and preserving these texts, Buddhists could accrue personal merit. As a consequence the idea of printing and its advantages in replicating texts quickly became apparent to Buddhists, who by the 7th century, were using woodblocks to create apotropaic documents. These Buddhist texts were printed specifically as ritual items and were not widely circulated or meant for public consumption. Instead they were buried in consecrated ground. The earliest extant example of this type of printed matter is a fragment of a dhāraṇī (Buddhist spell) miniature scroll written in Sanskrit unearthed in a tomb in Xi'an. It is called the Great spell of unsullied pure light (Wugou jingguang da tuoluoni jing and was printed using woodblock during the Tang dynasty, c. 650–670 AD. A similar piece, the Saddharma pundarika sutra, was also discovered and dated to 690 to 699.

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Following the maturation of woodblock printing, official, commercial, and private publishing businesses emerged while the size and number of collections grew exponentially. The Song dynasty alone accounts for some 700 known private collections, more than triple the number of all the preceding centuries combined. Private libraries of 10–20,000 juan became commonplace while six individuals owned collections of over 30,000 juan. The earliest extant private Song library catalogue lists 1,937 titles in 24,501 juan. Zhou Mi's collection numbered 42,000 juan, Chen Zhensun's collection lists 3,096 titles in 51,180 juan, and Ye Mengde (1077–1148) as well as one other individual owned libraries of 6,000 titles in 100,000 juan. The majority of which were secular in nature. Texts contained material such as medicinal instruction or came in the form of a leishu, a type of encyclopedic reference book used to help examination candidates. Imperial establishments such as the Three Institutes: Zhaowen Institute, History Institute, and Jixian Institute also followed suit. At the start of the dynasty the Three Institutes' holdings numbered 13,000 juan, by the year 1023 39,142 juan, by 1068 47,588 juan, and by 1127 73,877 juan. The Three Institutes were one of several imperial libraries, with eight other major palace libraries, not including imperial academies. According to Weng Tongwen, by the 11th century, central government offices were saving tenfold by substituting earlier manuscripts with printed versions. The impact of woodblock printing on Song society is illustrated in the following exchange between Emperor Zhenzong and Xing Bing in the year 1005: The emperor went to the Directorate of Education to inspect the Publications Office. He asked Xing Bing how many woodblocks were kept there. Bing replied, "At the start of our dynasty, there were fewer than four thousand. Today, there are more than one hundred thousand. The classics and histories, together with standard commentaries, are all fully represented. When I was young and devoted myself to learning, there were only one or two scholars in every hundred who possessed copies of all the classics and commentaries. There was no way to copy so many works. Today, printed editions of these works are abundant, and officials and commoners alike have them in their homes. Scholars are fortunate indeed to have been born in such an era as ours!

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Η Νυξ αναφέρεται ιδιαίτερα από τους αρχαίους Έλληνες ποιητές, αλλά η μεγάλη σημασία της στην ελληνική μυθολογία υπερβαίνει τα απλά λογοτεχνικά πλαίσια.

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According to Hesiod's Theogony, Nyx is the offspring of Chaos, alongside Erebus (Darkness), by whom she becomes the mother of Aether and Hemera (Day). Without the assistance of a father, Nyx produces Moros (Doom, Destiny)

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Η Νυξ αναφέρεται ακόμη ως θυγατέρα του Φάνητα, τον οποίο και διαδέχθηκε. Στη συνέχεια, παρότι παραδίδει το σκήπτρο στον υιό της τον Ουρανό, εξακολουθεί να συμβουλεύει τόσο αυτόν όσο και τις επόμενες γενεές — τον Κρόνο και, ιδιαίτερα, τον Δία — ως προς τον τρόπο δημιουργίας του κόσμου. Η επιρροή της οφειλόταν στις μαντικές της ικανότητες, τις οποίες ασκούσε μέσα σε μια σπηλιά. Σύμφωνα με κάποια ένδειξη, κατά τις παλαιότερες ορφικές δοξασίες, η Νυξ ήταν η πρωταρχική δύναμη (αντί του Χάους). Στον Αριστοφάνη μνημονεύεται ως προϋπάρχουσα του `Ερωτα (Φάνης). Η ίδια η Νυξ δεν ήταν αντικείμενο συστηματικής λατρείας από τους πιστούς της αρχαίας ελληνικής θρησκείας, αλλά σχετιζόταν με τα μαντεία. Υπήρχε δικό της ανάθημα μέσα στον ναό της Δήμητρας στην Πέργαμο, κατά την Ελληνορρωμαϊκή περίοδο αυτής.

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Nox, the Roman equivalent of Nyx, features in several genealogies given by Roman authors. According to Cicero, Aether and Dies (Day) are the children of Nox and Erebus, in addition to Amor (Love), Dolus (Guile), Metus (Fear), Labor (Toil), Invidentia (Envy), Fatum (Fate), Senectus (Old Age), Mors (Death), Tenebrae (Darkness), Miseria (Misery), Querella (Lamentation), Gratia (Favour), Fraus (Fraud), Pertinacia (Obstinacy), the Parcae, the Hesperides, and the Somnia (Dreams). In the genealogy given by the Roman mythographer Hyginus, Nox is the offspring of Chaos and Caligo (Mist), alongside Dies (Day), Erebus (Darkness), and Aether.[17] With Erebus, she produces Fatum (Fate), Senectus (Old Age), Mors (Death), Letum (Destruction), Continentia (Strife), Somnus (Sleep), the Somnia (Dreams), Lysimeles (Thoughtfulness), Epiphron (Hedymeles), Porphyrion, Epaphus, Discordia (Discord), Miseria (Misery), Petulantia (Petulance), Nemesis, Euphrosyne (Cheerfulness), Amicitia (Friendship), Misericordia (Pity), Styx, the Parcae (Clotho, Lachesis, and Atropos), and the Hesperides (Aegle, Hesperia, and Erythea). Several other Roman sources mention Nox as the mother of the Furies, with Pluto sometimes given as the father. During the Song dynasty, the directorate of education and other agencies used these block prints to disseminate their standardized versions of the Classics. Other disseminated works include the Histories, philosophical works, encyclopedias, collections, and books on medicine and the art of war. In the state of Wuyue, Qian Chu published the dharani-sutra Baoqieyin tuoluonijing in 956, 965, and 975. Each purportedly in the form of 84,000 miniature scrolls. A copy of the 956 edition was reprinted in Korea in 1007. In 971 work began on the complete Tripiṭaka Buddhist Canon (Kaibao zangshu) in Chengdu. It took 10 years to finish the 130,000 blocks needed to print the text. The finished product, the Sichuan edition of the Kaibao Canon, also known as the Kaibao Tripitaka, was printed in 983.[11][23] During the Song dynasty, the three major centers of printing were Hangzhou, Jianyang, and Chengdu.

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Carvers tended to congregate in centers of book production. By the mid-thirteenth century, thus, they worked in at least ninety-one prefectures in south China, but mainly in Hangzhou, Jianyang in northern Fujian, and Chengdu in Sichuan. In the Jin and Yuan dynasties, the centers of production were Pingyang prefecture in southern Shanxi Province and, once again for southeast China, Hangzhou and Jianyang. By the late Ming, the lower Yangzi delta, mainly Suzhou and Nanjing, would dominate along with Jianyang. By the early seventeenth century, carvers would also have found their way to provinces that, in the Song and Yuan, had produced only a few books (e.g., Hunan, Shaanxi, and Guangdong) but had recently started to print a fair number of imprints for the book market. The oldest extant evidence of woodblock prints created for the purpose of reading are portions of the Lotus Sutra discovered at Turpan in 1906. They have been dated to the reign of Wu Zetian using character form recognition. The oldest text containing a specific date of printing was discovered in the Mogao Caves of Dunhuang in 1907 by Aurel Stein. This copy of the Diamond Sutra is 14 feet (4.3 metres) long and contains a colophon at the inner end, which reads: Reverently [caused to be] made for universal free distribution by Wang Jie on behalf of his two parents on the 13th of the 4th moon of the 9th year of Xiantong [i.e. 11 May, AD 868 ]. It is considered the world's oldest securely-dated woodblock scroll. The Diamond Sutra was closely followed by the earliest extant printed almanac, the Qianfu sinian lishu, dated to 877. From 932 to 955 the Twelve Classics and an assortment of other texts were printed. During the Song dynasty, the directorate of education and other agencies used these block prints to disseminate their standardized versions of the Classics. Other disseminated works include the Histories, philosophical works, encyclopedias, collections, and books on medicine and the art of war. In the state of Wuyue, Qian Chu published the dharani-sutra Baoqieyin tuoluonijing in 956, 965, and 975. Each purportedly in the form of 84,000 miniature scrolls. A copy of the 956 edition was reprinted in Korea in 1007. In 971 work began on the complete Tripiṭaka Buddhist Canon (Kaibao zangshu) in Chengdu. It took 10 years to finish the 130,000 blocks needed to print the text. The finished product, the Sichuan edition of the Kaibao Canon, also known as the Kaibao Tripitaka, was printed in 983.[11][23] During the Song dynasty, the three major centers of printing were Hangzhou, Jianyang, and Chengdu.

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Ceramic and wooden movable type were invented in the Northern Song dynasty around the year 1041 by the commoner Bi Sheng. Metal movable type also appeared in the Southern Song dynasty. The earliest extant book printed using movable type is the Auspicious Tantra of All-Reaching Union, printed in Western Xia c. 1139–1193. Metal movable type was used in the Song, Jin, and Yuan dynasties for printing banknotes. The invention of movable type did not have an immediate effect on woodblock printing and it never supplanted it in East Asia.

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Традиционална кинеска техника гравираног штампања блокова захтева сарадњу неколико занатлија који поседују стручност, спретност и тимски дух. Сами блокови, направљени од ситнозрног дрвета крушке или жижуле, секу се на дебљину од два сантиметра и полирају брусним папиром како би се припремили за гравирање.

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Нацрти жељених слика се четкају на изузетно танак папир и проверавају да ли постоје грешке пре него што се пренесу на блокове. Дезени са мастилом пружају водич за занатлију који резбари слику или дизајн у дрво, стварајући издигнуте мотиве који ће на крају нанети мастило на папир. Међутим, прво се блокови тестирају црвеним, а затим плавим мастилом и врше се корекције резбарења. Коначно, када је блок спреман за употребу, прекрива се мастилом и притискује руком на папир да би се одштампала коначна слика. Блок гравура се може користити за штампање књига у различитим традиционалним стиловима, за креирање модерних књига са конвенционалним повезом или за репродукцију древних кинеских књига. Велики број штампарских радионица и данас наставља ову рукотворину захваљујући знању и вештини стручних занатлија.

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In Japan the first Western style movable type printing-press was brought to Japan by Tenshō embassy in 1590, and was first printed in Kazusa, Nagasaki in 1591. However, western printing-press were discontinued after the ban on Christianity in 1614. The moveable type printing-press seized from Korea by Toyotomi Hideyoshi's forces in 1593 was also in use at the same time as the printing press from Europe. An edition of the Confucian Analects was printed in 1598, using a Korean moveable type printing press, at the order of Emperor Go-Yōzei. Tokugawa Ieyasu established a printing school at Enko-ji in Kyoto and started publishing books using domestic wooden movable type printing-press instead of metal from 1599. Ieyasu supervised the production of 100,000 types, which were used to print many political and historical books. In 1605, books using domestic copper movable type printing-press began to be published, but copper type did not become mainstream after Ieyasu died in 1616. Gutenberg is also credited with the introduction of an oil-based ink which was more durable than previously used water-based inks. Having worked as a professional goldsmith, Gutenberg made skillful use of his knowledge of metals. He was also the first to make his type from an alloy of lead, tin, and antimony, known as type metal, printer's lead, or printer's metal, which was critical for producing durable type that produced high-quality printed books, and proved to be more suitable for printing than the clay, wooden or bronze types used in East Asia. To create these lead types, Gutenberg used what some considered his most ingenious invention: a special matrix which enabled the moulding of new movable types with an unprecedented precision at short notice. Within a year of printing the Gutenberg Bible, Gutenberg also published the first coloured prints.

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The great pioneers in applying movable type printing press to the creation of artistic books, and in preceding mass production for general consumption, were Honami Kōetsu and Suminokura Soan. At their studio in Saga, Kyoto, the pair created a number of woodblock versions of the Japanese classics, both text and images, essentially converting emaki (handscrolls) to printed books, and reproducing them for wider consumption. These books, now known as Kōetsu Books, Suminokura Books, or Saga Books, Saga-bon, are considered the first and finest printed reproductions of many of these classic tales; the Saga Book of the Tales of Ise (Ise monogatari), printed in 1608, is especially renowned. For aesthetic reasons, the typeface of the Saga-bon, like that of traditional handwritten books, adopted the renmen-tai, in which several characters are written in succession with smooth brush strokes. As a result, a single typeface was sometimes created by combining two to four semi-cursive and cursive kanji or hiragana characters. In one book, 2,100 characters were created, but 16% of them were used only once. Despite the appeal of moveable type, however, craftsmen soon decided that the semi cursive and cursive script style of Japanese writings was better reproduced using woodblocks. By 1640 woodblocks were once again used for nearly all purposes. After the 1640s, movable type printing declined, and books were mass-produced by conventional woodblock printing during most of the Edo period. It was after the 1870s, during the Meiji period, when Japan opened the country to the West and began to modernize, that this technique was used again

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In 1471, a Greek typeface followed, which was used for quotations, and then in 1473 a Black Letter typeface, which he used in books on medicine and history.[citation needed]

In distinction to his contemporary printers, Jenson was able to expand his financial base. By 1477 he could run as many as twelve presses simultaneously.[10] He was also responsible for launching two book trading companies, first in 1475 and then in 1480, under the name of Johannes de Colonia, Nicolaus Jenson et socii.[11]

Some fonts inspired by Jenson include Golden Type and Cloister Old Style.

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Николя́ Жансо́н (Николай Йенсон, фр. Nicolas Jenson; ~1420, Сомвуа[фр.], деп. Верхняя Марна — ~1480, Венеция, Италия) — французский пуансонист, гравёр, печатник и типограф, который работал в основном в Венеции.

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During the 1470s Nicholas Jenson's technical skill and business acumen helped establish Venice as Italy's publishing capital and in centuries since he has been celebrated for perfecting roman type, the rebirth of Latin inscription. In 1477 Jenson was able to run as many as twelve presses at the same time. To lower prices and force out less productive rivals, he cut cursive gothic type, enabling him to print text and gloss on the same page for the first time. During the time of his arrival in Venice Jenson was quite successful as an artist but was financially successful as well.

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Шрифты Жансона оказали огромное влияние как на его современников — Франческо Гриффо и Клода Гарамона, так и на далеких потомков. Первым, после долго забвения, к шрифтам Жансона обратился английский поэт, художник и типограф Уильям Моррис. Он писал, что Жансон «поднял антикву до возможного предела совершенства». Антиква Жансона послужила образцом для моррисовского «Золотого шрифта» (1890). Однако Моррис, большой любитель средневековья, используя в качестве другого образца менее контрастный и более темный шрифт венецианца Якоба де Рубеуса, не стремился к точному воссозданию антиквы Жансона. О результате говорит замечание художника Уолтера Крейна, который говорил, что «антиква Морриса получилась более готической, чем у Жансона». В 1900 г. художник Эмери Уокер нарисовал для типографа Томаса Кобден-Сандерсона, владельца издательства Doves Press, шрифт (т. н. Doves Roman), более близкий к шрифту Жансона. Им была набрана знаменитая Библия Doves Press — самое известное творение издательства. Однако матрицы шрифта не сохранились, как и матрицы оригинального шрифта Жансона. В 1916 г. Кобден-Сандерсон тайно выбросил всё своё типографское оборудование (в т. ч. шрифт) в Темзу с моста Хаммерсмит. В 1912—1914 годах Брюс Роджерс создал шрифт Centaur на основе антиквы Жансона, нарезанной в 1469 году. Наиболее удачные цифровые интерпретации шрифта Жансона, по мнению Брингхерста, созданы Рональдом Арнхольмом (Legacy, ITC, 1992) и Робертом Слимбахом (Adobe Jenson, Adobe, 1996)

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His early training as a goldsmith allowed him even greater sensitivities to the sculptural nature of type; the letters Jenson employed were often beautiful capitals that could summon the spirit of Rome. Jenson's fame as one of history's greatest typeface designers and punch cutters rests on the types first used in his edition of Eusebius's Praeparatio Evangelica, which presents the full flowering of the roman type design. Jenson's letters are clearly borrowing their shapes from the calligraphic shapes that preceded them, called littera Antica. These were in turn based on Carolingian minuscules, to which serifs, borrowed from the Imperial Roman capitals, were added. It was first in use in his 1470 edition of Eusebius. In 1471, a Greek typeface followed, which was used for quotations, and then in 1473 a Black Letter typeface, which he used in books on medicine and history. In distinction to his contemporary printers, Jenson was able to expand his financial base. By 1477 he could run as many as twelve presses simultaneously. He was also responsible for launching two book trading companies, first in 1475 and then in 1480, under the name of Johannes de Colonia, Nicolaus Jenson et socii. Some fonts inspired by Jenson include Golden Type and Cloister Old Style. The Manual Of Linotype Typography, Published 1923 by Linotype Company. During the Song dynasty, the directorate of education and other agencies used these block prints to disseminate their standardized versions of the Classics. Other disseminated works include the Histories, philosophical works, encyclopedias, collections, and books on medicine and the art of war. In the state of Wuyue, Qian Chu published the dharani-sutra Baoqieyin tuoluonijing in 956, 965, and 975. Each purportedly in the form of 84,000 miniature scrolls. A copy of the 956 edition was reprinted in Korea in 1007. In 971 work began on the complete Tripiṭaka Buddhist Canon (Kaibao zangshu) in Chengdu. It took 10 years to finish the 130,000 blocks needed to print the text. The finished product, the Sichuan edition of the Kaibao Canon, also known as the Kaibao Tripitaka, was printed in 983.[11][23] During the Song dynasty, the three major centers of printing were Hangzhou, Jianyang, and Chengdu.

Mixed Weights

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Invented by Bavarian author Aloys Senefelder in 1796, lithography is a method for printing on a smooth surface. Lithography is a printing process that uses chemical processes to create an image.

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Σε ειδικά φύλλα αλουμινίου με μία λεπτή επικάλυψη ψευδαργύρου τοποθετούνται φιλμ τα οποία έχουν εκτυπωθεί από ειδικό εκτυπωτή και επικαλυμμένο με τα κατάλληλα χημικά τα οποία μπαίνουν σε μία ειδική μηχανή που αποκαλείται "μεταφορέας".

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Μία λάμπα παρόμοια με των σολάριουμ αλλά μεγαλύτερης ισχύος λειτουργεί με χρονοδιακόπτη τον οποίο ρυθμίζει ο τυπογράφος ανάλογα και με τη μακέτα. Τα φύλλα αλουμινίου τοποθετούνται στους ειδικούς κυλίνδρους πάνω στις μηχανές εκτύπωσης όφσετ, αφού περαστούν και καθαριστούν με ένα χημικό, την εμφάνιση. Ουσιαστικά ο μεταφορέας "καίει" ό,τι δεν καλύπτεται από το φιλμ. Αφού γίνει η τοποθέτηση των μελανιών πάνω στο σύνολο κυλίνδρων το οποίο σύνολο που επεξεργάζεται τα μελάνια για καλύτερη ποιότητα εκτύπωσης, το μελανείο, το οποίο σύνολο μαζί με τους κυλίνδρους νερού και τους λοιπούς κυλίνδρους ονομάζεται πύργος. Τα μελάνια ακουμπούν πάνω στο φύλλο αλουμινίου, το φύλλο αλουμινίου πάνω σε ένα κύλινδρο από καουτσούκ[1] που αποκαλείται με το ίδιο όνομα.

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Chromolithography became the most successful of several methods of colour printing developed by the 19th century; other methods were developed by printers such as Jacob Christoph Le Blon, George Baxter and Edmund Evans, and mostly relied on using several woodblocks with the colors. Hand-coloring also remained important; elements of the official British Ordnance Survey maps were colored by hand by boys until 1875. Chromolithography developed from lithography and the term covers various types of lithography that are printed in color. The initial technique involved the use of multiple lithographic stones, one for each color, and was still extremely expensive when done for the best quality results. Depending on the number of colors present, a chromolithograph could take months to produce, by very skilled workers. However much cheaper prints could be produced by simplifying both the number of colors used, and the refinement of the detail in the image. Cheaper images, like the advertisement illustrated, relied heavily on an initial black print (not always a lithograph), on which colors were then overprinted. To make an expensive reproduction print as what was once referred to as a "’chromo’", a lithographer, with a finished painting in front of him, gradually created and corrected the many stones using proofs to look as much as possible like the painting in front of him, sometimes using dozens of layers. Depending on the number of colors present, a chromolithograph could take months to produce, by very skilled workers. However much cheaper prints could be produced by simplifying both the number of colors used, and the refinement of the detail in the image. Cheaper images, like the advertisement illustrated, relied heavily on an initial black print (not always a lithograph), on which colors were then overprinted. To make an expensive reproduction print as what was once referred to as a "’chromo’", a lithographer, with a finished painting in front of him, gradually created and corrected the many stones using proofs to look as much as possible like the painting in front of him, sometimes using dozens of layers.

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Following the maturation of woodblock printing, official, commercial, and private publishing businesses emerged while the size and number of collections grew exponentially. The Song dynasty alone accounts for some 700 known private collections, more than triple the number of all the preceding centuries combined. Private libraries of 10–20,000 juan became commonplace while six individuals owned collections of over 30,000 juan. The earliest extant private Song library catalogue lists 1,937 titles in 24,501 juan. Zhou Mi's collection numbered 42,000 juan, Chen Zhensun's collection lists 3,096 titles in 51,180 juan, and Ye Mengde (1077–1148) as well as one other individual owned libraries of 6,000 titles in 100,000 juan. The majority of which were secular in nature. Texts contained material such as medicinal instruction or came in the form of a leishu, a type of encyclopedic reference book used to help examination candidates. Imperial establishments such as the Three Institutes: Zhaowen Institute, History Institute, and Jixian Institute also followed suit. At the start of the dynasty the Three Institutes' holdings numbered 13,000 juan, by the year 1023 39,142 juan, by 1068 47,588 juan, and by 1127 73,877 juan. The Three Institutes were one of several imperial libraries, with eight other major palace libraries, not including imperial academies. According to Weng Tongwen, by the 11th century, central government offices were saving tenfold by substituting earlier manuscripts with printed versions. The impact of woodblock printing on Song society is illustrated in the following exchange between Emperor Zhenzong and Xing Bing in the year 1005: The emperor went to the Directorate of Education to inspect the Publications Office. He asked Xing Bing how many woodblocks were kept there. Bing replied, "At the start of our dynasty, there were fewer than four thousand. Today, there are more than one hundred thousand. The classics and histories, together with standard commentaries, are all fully represented. When I was young and devoted myself to learning, there were only one or two scholars in every hundred who possessed copies of all the classics and commentaries. There was no way to copy so many works. Today, printed editions of these works are abundant, and officials and commoners alike have them in their homes. Scholars are fortunate indeed to have been born in such an era as ours!

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Aloys Senefelder, introduced the subject of colored lithography in his 1818 Vollstaendiges Lehrbuch der Steindruckerey (A Complete Course of Lithography), where he told of his plans to print using color.

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Although Senefelder recorded plans for chromolithography, printers in other countries, such as France and England, were also trying to find a new way to print in color. Godefroy Engelmann of Mulhouse in France was awarded a patent on chromolithography in July 1837, but there are disputes over whether chromolithography was already in use before this date, as some sources say, pointing to areas of printing such as the production of playing cards.

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Offset printing is a widely used printing technique where the inked image is transferred or offset from a plate to a rubber blanket, then to the printing surface. When used in combination with the lithographic process, which is based on the repulsion of oil and water, the offset technique employs a flat (planographic) image carrier on which the image to be printed obtains ink from ink rollers, while the non-printing area attracts a film of water, keeping the non-printing areas ink-free. Although the surface and inscriptions of most seals were small or limited, some wooden seals were as large as printing blocks and were inscribed with texts more than one hundred characters long. The seals of the West, on the other hand, were cylindrical or scaraboid, round or oval, and inscribed primarily with pictures or designs and only occasionally with writing. The cylindrical seals used to roll over clay had no potential to develop into a printing surface.— Tsien Tsuen-hsuin

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Хромолітогра́фія — кольорова літографія, при створенні якої для нанесення кожного кольору застосовувалася окрема друкована форма (до 20 і більше). Друкована форма робиться на камені або цинковій пластині, на яку попередньо наносився контур кольорової плями. Техніка хромолітографій доволі широко використовувалася в другій половині XIX і на початку XX століття. На початку XXI століття вона практично повністю витіснена сучасними (в тому числі фото-механічними) методами передачі зображення. Патент на хромолітографію був виданий 1837 року французу Годефруа Енгельману (Godefroy Engelmann) з ельзаського Мюлузу, проте, існують свідчення, що технологія хромолітографій використовувалася й раніше, зокрема, для виробництва гральних карт. Після винайдення 1871 року швидкого преса для друку на камені (нім. Steindruck-Schnellpresse) друкувалося дедалі більше кольорових літографій, оскільки виникла можливість досить дешево продукувати великий наклад.

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Between 1952 and 1954 Fritz Karl Preikschat filed five patent applications for his teletype writer 7 stylus 35 dot matrix aka PKT printer, a dot matrix teletypewriter built between 1954 and 1956 in Germany. Like the earlier Hellschreiber, it still used electromechanical means of coding and decoding, but it used a start-stop method (asynchronous transmission) rather than synchronous transmission for communication. In 1956, while he was employed at Telefonbau und Normalzeit GmbH (TuN, later called Tenovis), the device was offered to the Deutsche Bundespost (German Post Office), which did not show interest. When Preikschat emigrated to the US in 1957 he sold the rights to utilize the applications in any countries (except for the USA) to TuN. The prototype was also shown to General Mills in 1957. An improved transistorized design became the basis for a portable dot matrix facsimile machine, which was prototyped and evaluated for military use by Boeing around 1966–1967. In 197o Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) introduced an impact dot matrix printer, the LA30, as did Centronics (then of Hudson, New Hampshire): the Centronics 101. The search for a reliable printer mechanism led it to develop a relationship with Brother Industries, Ltd of Japan, and the sale of Centronics-badged Brother printer mechanisms equipped with a Centronics print head and Centronics electronics. Unlike Digital, Centronics concentrated on the low-end line printer marketplace with their distinctive units. In the process, they designed the parallel electrical interface that was to become standard on most printers until it began to be replaced by the Universal Serial Bus (USB) in the late 1990s. DEC was a major vendor, albeit with a focus on use with their PDP minicomputer line.[21] Their LA30 30 character/second (CPS) dot matrix printer, the first of many, was introduced in 1970. In the mid-1980s, dot-matrix printers were dropping in price, and began to outsell daisywheel printers, due to their higher speed and versatility. The Apple ImageWriter was a popular consumer dot matrix printer in the 1980s until the mid-1990s. In the 1970s and 1980s, dot matrix impact printers were generally considered the best combination of cost and versatility, and until the 1990s were by far the most common form of printer used with personal and home computers. Increased pincount of the printhead from 7, 8, 9 or 12 pins to 18, 24, 27, or 36 permitted superior print quality, which was necessary for success in Asian markets to print legible CJKV characters Epson's 24-pin LQ-series rose to become the new de facto standard, at 24/180 inch (per pass – 7.5 lpi). Not only could a 24-pin printer lay down a denser dot-pattern in a single pass, it could simultaneously cover a larger area and print more quickly. Although the text quality of a 24-pin was still visibly inferior to a true letter-quality printer such as a daisy wheel or laser printer, print quality was greatly superior to a 9-pin printer. As manufacturing costs declined, 24-pin printers gradually replaced 9-pin printers. Each dot is produced by a tiny metal rod, also called a "wire" or "pin", which is driven forward by the power of a tiny electromagnet or solenoid, either directly or through small levers (pawls). Facing the ribbon and the paper is a small guide plate named ribbon mask holder or protector, sometimes also called butterfly for its typical shape. It is pierced with holes to serve as guides for the pins. The plate may be made of hard plastic or an artificial jewel such as sapphire or ruby. The portion of the printer that contains the pin is called the print head. When running the printer, it generally prints one line of text at a time. The printer head is attached to a metal bar that ensures correct alignment, but horizontal positioning is controlled by a band that attaches to sprockets on two wheels at each side which is then driven with an electric motor This band may be made of stainless steel, phosphor bronze or beryllium copper alloys, nylon or various synthetic materials with a twisted nylon core to prevent stretching. Actual position can be found out either by dead count using a stepper motor, rotary encoder attached to one wheel or a transparent plastic band with markings that is read by an optical sensor on the printer head (common on inkjets).

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